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精准扶贫是推动高质量发展的有效途径

2019-03-16     牛牛财经   来源:证券日报 郑新业
文章摘要:■郑新业精准扶贫的目标和前提是推动高质量发展,对精准扶贫的认识不能仅仅局限在公平视角,要跳出扶贫来看扶贫。改革开放四十年来,中国取得了举世瞩目的经济增长奇迹,同时创造了史无前例的减贫成就。中国长期中高速经济增长是大规模减贫的主要贡献因素。….

    ■郑zhengxinye

    精jingzhunfupindemubiaoheqiantishituidonggaozhiliangfazhan,对duijingzhunfupinderenshibunengjinjinjuxianzaigongpingshijiao,要yaotiaochufupinlaikanfupin

    改gaigekaifangsishinianlai,中zhongguoqudeliaojushizhumudejingjizengchang“奇qiji”,同tongshichuangzaoliaoshiwuqianlidejianpinchengjiu。中zhongguochangqizhonggaosujingjizengchangshidaguimojianpindezhuyaogongxianyinsu。但danshi,非feipinghengzengchangde“涓juandixiaoying”并bingweishixiansuoyoudiqu、人renqunhuoqufenxiangjundengdefazhanhongli,仍rengyouxiangdangyibufendishouruquntiweinengfenxiangjingjizengchangdechengguo。贫pinkunrenkoushibieyoudaijingzhun,政zhengcehegonggongwupintigongdezhenduixingyoudaijiaqiang。在zaicibeijingxia,精jingzhunfupintichujingzhunshibie,因yinrenyinhushice,因yincuntigonggonggongwupin,并bingjiangfupindesilucongdanyigongpingshijiaozengjiapinkunhushouru,转zhuanhuanweizengchang、发fazhanhebodongduozhongshijiao。此ciwai,从congquanqiushijiaolaikan,结jiehedangjinguojizhumingde“Sachs(萨sakesi)和heEasterly(伊yisiteli)之zhizheng”,精jingzhunfupinyoujirongheliao“大datuidonghexiaoguimojubugaige”的dejianpincelue,具juyougaodudekexuexing

    一yi、精jingzhunfupindebiyaoxing

    第diyi,精jingzhunfupindehexinshitishengxiaolv

    在zaichangjiandetaolunzhong,许xuduozhengcezhidingzhe、研yanjiuzhenaizhishehuigongzhongrenweigongpinghexiaolvjiqiduiyingdezhengcegongjushixianghuduili、相xianghuqushedeguanxi,将jiangfupinshiweixishengxiaolvzhuiqiugongpingdegongju。这zheyirenshizaimouzhongchengdushangyingxiangliaorenmenduipinkunquntidetaidu,或huoshiweiliaogongpingzhengyihuoshichizhuolianmindetaidu。相xiangyingde,扶fupinxingdongwangwangxuyaozhengfuqiangyoulidezhengcetuidongcainengguancheheluoshi,分fenxiangjuedabufenjingjizengchangchengguodeshaoshuquntiyehenshaozifadiqubangzhuqiongren。从congzhegeyiyishangshuo,认renshishangdewuqushizuaijingjizengchangjuandidaoqiongrende“拦lanluhu”。为weici,笔bizhepoqiexiwangjiuzhengzhezhongguandianherenshi,扶fupinbujinshijiejuegongping,更gengshitishengxiaolvdezhongyaoshouduan

    首shouxian,精jingzhunfupinyouzhuyushifangnongcunqianzaidelaodongli,增zengjialaodonggonggeiduijingjizengchangdegongxian。精jingzhunfupinduizhengxiayao:一yishitongguochanyefupin、异yidibanqian、教jiaoyupeixundengfangshicijinongcunpinkunrenkoujiuye,增zengjialaodongcanyulv;二ershitongguojiaoyu、健jiankangfupindengzhengcezengjiapinkunrenkouderenliziben,以yijijichusheshijiansheyoulitigaoqiongrensuoyifudezibendejiazhi,从congertigaozhebufenquntidelaodongshengchanlv,这zheduiyujingjizengchangshijuyouxianzhucujinzuoyongde

    其qici,精jingzhunfupinyouzhuyutigaopinkunquntiderenlizibenwaiyixiaoying。当dangqian,中zhongguoyijingjinrudaoyigegaodudehezuoxingshehui,个gerendelaodongshengchannengli,很hendachengdushangshouqihezuozhelaodongshengchanlvdeyingxiang。研yanjiufaxian,在zaizibentourububiandeqingxingxia,同tongjinenglaodongzhezhijianxianghuhezuosuochuangzaodechanchuyibanhuigaoyugaojinenglaodongzheyudijinenglaodongzhezhijianhezuosuochuangzaodechanchu。另lingyifangmian,在zailaodonglishulianggudingbubiandeqingxingxia,个gerendebianjichanchuyuqiyifudezibenyouguan。譬piruchengzhenlaodongligongzimingxiangaoyunongcun,发fadadiquderenjunshourushuipinggaoyuqianfadadiqu。这zheyichayidegenyuanshirenjunzibencunliangchayi,包baokuojichusheshishuiping、金jinrongtouzishuiping、教jiaoyuziyuandengfangmiandechayi

    所suoyi,帮bangzhuqiongrenbujinshicujingongping,更gengshixiaolvtisheng。保baozhangqiongrendeshoujiaoyuzhiliangheshuiping,给geiyumeidairenjihuiwanchengdaijideliudonghekuayue,将jiangyouzhuyushixianrenlizibendebuduanleijihezengchang,从congerziranshixianjingjidejinyibuzengchang

    第dier,精jingzhunfupindazaowudafazhanlinianxiadexinzengchangji

    从congfazhandejiaodulaikan,精jingzhunfupinshizhuliwudaxinfazhanlinianluodi,变bianweipubianshijiandeguanjianzhuashou。精jingzhunfupinzaicujingongxiangfazhanzhiwai,还huantuchutixianzaiyixialianggefangmian

    一yishi“补buqiduanban”促cujinxiediaofazhan。按anzhaobianjizibenbaochoudijiandeguilv,将jiangtouzixiangzibencunliangjiaoshao、基jichusheshibaoruodediquqingxie,既jiyoudetouruhuihuodegengduodehuibaolv,对duijingjizengchangdegongxianyexiangduigengda。世shijieyinxingshouxijingjixuejiaBasu(2014)指zhichu,政zhengfushishicaizhengbaozhanghezhichidecuoshiyouzhuyucujintouzi,降jiangditouzifengxian,进jinerdaidongjingjizengchang。从congzhegeyiyishanglaikan,精jingzhunfupinqijian,政zhengfutongguobaozhangyouzhuyujianpindetouzixiangmudeluodi,一yifangmiannenggoucujinpinkunjumindeshouru;另lingyifangmianxiyingengduodetouzi,进jinerzengjiatouziduidangdijingjizengchangdeladongzuoyong,进jinersuoxiaodiquzhijian、城chengxiangzhijianyijinongcunneibudeshouruchajuwenti,促cujindiquzhijiandexiediaofazhan

    二ershiqianchu“穷qiongshaneshui”保baohu“绿lvshuiqingshan”。贫pinkunrenkoudejuzhuweizhihenduojizhongzaishandi、林lindiyijishuiyuanshangyoudengdiqu。从congfupindejiaodulaikan,这zhexiediqubenshenquefarenleiweichishengcundejibentiaojian,精jingzhunfupintongguoyidibanqianzhengce,按anzhaonongminziyuandeyuanze,在zaizhengfudetongyizuzhixia,搬banqiandaoshenghuoheshengchantiaojianjiaohaodediqu,有youzhuyujiejueyindilihuanjingtiaojianelieyinfadepinkunwenti。但dancong绿lvsefazhandejiaodulaikan,这zhexiediqutongshiyeshiguojiahuadingdezhongyaoshengtaigongnengqu。经jingtongji,贫pinkunxianyushengtaigongnengquyou90.05%的dezhongdie,贫pinkunxianchengsuozaidiyushengtaigongnengquyou79.93%的dezhongdie,实shijizhongdielvjieyu79.93%-90.05%之zhijian。而erjiangzhebufenquntiqianyichulaibingfuzhiyishengtaibuchang,实shijishangqidaoliaobaohushengtaihuanjinganquandezuoyong。可keyishuo,精jingzhunfupinqidaoliaocujingongxiangfazhanhe绿lvsefazhandeshuangzhongzuoyong

    第disan,精jingzhunfupinshibukehushidefanshuai退tuigongju。2012年nianyilai,中zhongguojingjizengchangsuduxialiaoyigetaijie,明mingxiandiyugaigekaifangyilaidechangqizengchangjixiao,2015年nianjingjizengchanglvdiepo7%,2017年nianjingjizengchanglvxiajiangzhi6.8%,宏hongguanjingjixiaxingyalijiada。按anzhaokaiensibianjixiaofeiqingxiangdijiandeguilv,在zaijingjixiaxingshiqi,采caiquduibianjixiaofeiqingxiangjiaogaoquntidezhichizhengce,将jiangyouzhuyucijixiaofei。通tongguotongjichengxiangbutongshourudengjijuminderenjunxiaofeizhichudezengchangqingkuang,笔bizhefaxiansuizhuojuminshourushuipingdezengjia,农nongcunjuminrenjunxiaofeizhichuzengsuxianzhugaoyuchengzhenjuminxiaofeizhichuzengsu;低dishouruhuderenjunxiaofeizhichuzengsuxianzhugaoyugaoshouruhujuminxiaofeizhichuzengsu,具juyoujiaogaodebianjixiaofeiqingxiang。在zaizheyangdeqingxingxia,精jingzhunfupintongguoweipinkunquntitigongjiuye、增zengjiashehuibaozhanglidu,有youzhuyuzengjiazhebufenquntideshouru,进jinerkuodanongcunpinkundiqudexiaofei,增zengqiangxiaofeiduijingjizengchangdeladongzuoyong。从congzheyiyishangshuo,精jingzhunfupinshibukehushidezhongyaodefanshuai退tuigongju

    二er、精jingzhunfupindekexuexing

    从congquanqiushiyelaikan,当dangjinguojishengxingdexiaochupinkundefangshizhuyaoyouliangdaliupai:一yipaishiyigelunbiyadaxuedejiefuli·萨sakesi(Sachs)为weidaibiao,认renweipinkundegenyuanshi“贫pinkunxianjing”,主zhuzhangshishi“大datuidong”策celueyikuaisuxiaochupinkun。另lingyipaishiyiniuyuedaxuedeweilian·伊yisiteli(Easterly)为weidaibiao,认renweipinkundegenyuanzaiyu“政zhengfufubai”,在zaixinxibuduichenghequefayouxiaojilijizhiqingkuangxia,“大datuidong”策celueshidixiaolvde,主zhuzhangcaiqu“小xiaoguimojubugaige”策celue,由you“搜souxunzhe”(如rushehuiqiyejia、专zhuanyeyanjiuzhedeng)通tongguojingyanhuofanfudezhengweishiyan,寻xunzhaojiejuemougejutiwentidedaan,并bingtongguoxiangmushuliang、时shijianhekongjiandezhubuleijiyidadaoxiaochupinkundemude。在zaishijianshang,“小xiaoguimojubugaige”策celuezhuyaoshiyixiexuejie“搜souxunzhe”探tansuodejiejuefangfa

    从congzhongguoshijianlaikan,新xinshiqidejingzhunfupinzhengcezaijiehejibenguoqingdejichushang,有youjirongheliaoliangdaliupaidezhengcezhuzhang。精jingzhunfupinyifangmian使shiyong“大datuidong”策celueduinongye、健jiankang、教jiaoyuhejichusheshifangmianjinxingtouzi。另lingyifangmianfahui“搜souxunzhe”的dejiaose,例liruyincun、因yinhupaibangfuguanyuanliaojiepinkunhudezhipinyuanyinhexuqiudengxinxi;寻xunzhaoyubendiziyuanbingfuxiangshiyingqiejuyoudaipinzuoyongdechanye;对duiwaichuwugongrenyuantigongjiaotongbutie;对duicanyupeixundepinkunhutigongbutie;为weipinkunhu、带daipinqiyetigongmianxidexiaoedaikuandengdeng

    总zongeryanzhi,以yitishengxiaolvweihexindejingzhunfupinzhengcebujinnengtishenggongping,而erqiezaixinfazhanlinianxiashiqianzaidexinjingjizengchangdian,一yidingyiyishanghuanjuyoufanjingjishuai退tuidegongneng,是shituidonggaozhiliangfazhandeyouxiaotujing。且qiezaijutizuofashang,精jingzhunfupinxishou、融ronghe、创chuangxinguojishangshengxingdejianpinjucuo,具juyougaodudekexuexing

    (作zuozhexizhongguorenmindaxueyingyongjingjixueyuanjiaoshou、国guojiafazhanyuzhanlueyanjiuyuanyanjiuyuan

 

    

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